June 2007, Passage 4, Question 24

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Question 24. The passage indicates that pollen analyses have provided evidence against which the following views? So when a question asks what the passage indicates it's a detailed question. It's saying find me something in the answers that was definitely said in the passage itself.

Not hinted at but definitely said. Now we might predict that the answer is gonna come from paragraph four because if we look at our notes, paragraph four does say that that's where they disproved the belief about when flax was grown. So we might have a prediction going into the answer choices, so let's see if choice A says, the moldboard plough was introduced into Ireland in the seventh century.

Now this is something the passage tells us but it's not something that the passage disapproves. Pollen analysis didn't tell us anything about the plough. It just told us that cereal grains were being grown before the plow was in use. Go to answer choice B. In certain parts of of County Down, cereal grains were not cultivated to any significant extent before the seventh century.

So surprise, they didn't give us something from paragraph four, but rather paragraph three. In paragraph three, people used to think that cereal grains weren't grown until they started using that plough in the seventh century. But the pollen analysis showed that they were using it before then. So, there is evidence against the view that they weren't cultivated before the seventh century.

Issue is B is our answer, but let's glance at the other answers just to see why they're wrong. Answer choice C, in certain parts of Ireland, cereal grains have been cultivated continuously since the introduction of the moldboard plough. Well, the passage tells us that they use the plough and that after that they were producing cereal grains.

We don't know really about the continuously part. But this isn't something that passage gave us evidence against it seems right in line with what the passage said. Answer choice D, cereal grain cultivation requires successful tilling of the soil. This is also something that was said in the discussion of the moldboard plough, in the third paragraph.

And the pollen grains didn't show that you don't need to till, just that you don't need the moldboard plough to till. So answer choice E, cereal grain cultivation began and county down around 400. That's not something the passage provides evidence against. That's something the passage provides evidence of.

That's what the pollen grains showed that they were growing cereal back in the 400s. So, answer choice B is our answer.

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